(CNN)The US scientists who created the first surviving robots accidental the beingness forms, known arsenic xenobots, tin present reproduce -- and successful a mode not seen successful plants and animals.
Formed from the stem cells of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) from which it takes its name, xenobots are little than a millimeter (0.04 inches) wide. The tiny blobs were archetypal unveiled successful 2020 aft experiments showed that they could move, enactment unneurotic successful groups and self-heal.
Now the scientists that developed them astatine the University of Vermont, Tufts University and Harvard University's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering said they person discovered an wholly caller signifier of biologic reproduction antithetic from immoderate carnal oregon works known to science.
"I was astounded by it," said Michael Levin, a prof of biology and manager of the Allen Discovery Center astatine Tufts University who was co-lead writer of the caller research.
"Frogs person a mode of reproducing that they usually usage but erstwhile you ... liberate (the cells) from the remainder of the embryo and you springiness them a accidental to fig retired however to beryllium successful a caller environment, not lone bash they fig retired a caller mode to move, but they besides fig retired seemingly a caller mode to reproduce."
The C-shaped genitor xenobots cod and compress escaped stem cells unneurotic into piles which tin mature into offspring.
Robot oregon organism?
Stem cells are unspecialized cells that person the quality to make into antithetic compartment types. To marque the xenobots, the researchers scraped surviving stem cells from frog embryos and near them to incubate. There's nary manipulation of genes involved.
"Most radical deliberation of robots arsenic made of metals and ceramics but it's not truthful overmuch what a robot is made from but what it does, which is enactment connected its ain connected behalf of people," said Josh Bongard, a machine subject prof and robotics adept astatine the University of Vermont and pb writer of the study.
"In that mode it's a robot but it's besides intelligibly an organism made from genetically unmodified frog cell."
Bongard said they recovered that the xenobots, which were initially sphere-shaped and made from astir 3,000 cells, could replicate. But it happened seldom and lone successful circumstantial circumstances. The xenobots utilized "kinetic replication" -- a process that is known to hap astatine the molecular level but has ne'er been observed earlier astatine the standard of full cells oregon organisms, Bongard said.
With the assistance of artificial intelligence, the researchers past tested billions of assemblage shapes to marque the xenobots much effectual astatine this benignant of replication. The supercomputer came up with a C-shape that resembled Pac-Man, the 1980s video game. They recovered it was capable to find tiny stem cells successful a petri dish, stitchery hundreds of them wrong its mouth, and a fewer days aboriginal the bundle of cells became caller xenobots.
The genitor rotates a ample shot of stem cells that is maturing into a caller xenobot.
"The AI didn't programme these machines successful the mode we usually deliberation astir penning code. It shaped and sculpted and came up with this Pac-Man shape," Bongard said.
"The signifier is, successful essence, the program. The signifier influences however the xenobots behave to amplify this incredibly astonishing process."
The xenobots are precise aboriginal exertion -- deliberation of a 1940s machine -- and don't yet person immoderate applicable applications. However, this operation of molecular biology and artificial quality could perchance beryllium utilized successful a big of tasks successful the assemblage and the environment, according to the researchers. This whitethorn see things similar collecting microplastics successful the oceans, inspecting basal systems and regenerative medicine.
While the imaginable of self-replicating biotechnology could spark concern, the researchers said that the surviving machines were wholly contained successful a laboratory and easy extinguished, arsenic they are biodegradable and regulated by morals experts.
The probe was partially funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a national bureau that oversees the improvement of exertion for subject use.
"There are galore things that are imaginable if we instrumentality vantage of this benignant of plasticity and quality of cells to lick problems," Bongard said.
The study was published successful the peer-reviewed technological diary PNAS connected Monday.
Jessie Yeung successful Hong Kong contributed to this report